water supplies and other processes. Sodium ion is often the choice measurement over conductivity in monitoring cation exchangers, where the effluent is a highly conductive dilute acid and sodium is the first ion to break through the de-ionizer bed. It is also used for monitoring treated boiler water and condensate containing a pH-adjuster or
Feb 14, 2014 · At the water treatment plant, monitoring for sodium helps to identify any breakthrough from the cation exchange and mixed bed outlets caused by exhaustion of the ion exchange beds. As sodium
water by softeners. Their removal dramatically reduces the possibility of boiler scale formation. Water softening can be performed by ion exchange, whereby favorable sodium ions are exchanged for unfavorable calcium and magnesium hardness ions by the ion exchange resin beads. Eventually, the softener resin bed exhausts (fills up with
May 04, 2016 · A boiler that makes up 4000 gal/day of water having 100 ppm of hardness, has a potential of accumulating over 1000 pounds of scale per year. Alkalinity Test In natural waters, alkalinity is most commonly the result of bicarbonate and carbonate ions; in treated waters, alkalinity may also be contributed by hydroxide, phosphate, silicate, and
Typical levels of sodium in river water would be approximately 30mgkg-1, and in sea water, approximately 12,000 mgkg-1. Nearly all sodium compounds are water soluble, and in the high purity waters (i.e. very dilute solutions) found in power generation plants, these compounds are dissociated into ions. In the case of sodium chloride (NaCl), into
The sodium ion analyzer can detect carryover down to 1 ppb sodium in steam. Affect of oil on carryover. Oil contamination in boiler feedwater is usually from pumps and other lubricated equipment. Oil can cause serious foaming due to saponification of oil by boiler water
Testing Alkalinity In Boiler Water. Alkalinity is a key control parameter for boilers (outside of the prescribed operating range, it can lead to corrosion, caustic metal embrittlement, and carryover) and cooling water systems (where it has a significant effect on
temperature is held above 190° F there is a potential for feed water pump cavitation. Temperature gauges fail, so holding the tank at 200ºF. When the feed water pump comes on, the boiling point of water is reduced Deareators use head pressure (1 psi for every 2.3 feet of height
Most boiler systems have sodium zeolite softened or demineralized makeup water. Feedwater hardness usually ranges from 0.01 to 2.0 ppm, but even water of this purity does not provide deposit-free operation. Therefore, good internal boiler water treatment programs are necessary. DEPOSITS
Water for the Boiler | Spirax Sarco
1.1 This test method covers the on-line determination of trace amounts of sodium in water using an ion-selective electrode. 1.2 This test method is based on on-line application of the sodium ion electrode as reported in the technical literature ( 1- 3 ) . 2 It is generally applicable over the
Feb 13, 2017 · For example, water softened through the common ion exchange process results in elevated sodium levels. When this water is heated, carbon dioxide is driven out of solution and vented away. Sodium hydroxide can form and pH can drift upward and stabilize above 8.5.
Jul 16, 2009 · The conventional boiler water test finds only the presence of OH and half of CO3. Standard value of P alkalinity in Boiler Water is between 50-300mg CaCO3/l. Effects. Higher value of P alkalinity leads to scale formation and overheating of the inside of the boiler causing internal damage. 6. Chloride ion. It causes generation of scale formation.
Mar 13, 2017 · Sodium ion exchange systems (water softeners) are capable of removing hardness before it reacts within the boiler to produce mineral scale deposits that adversely affect heat transfer. More sophisticated ion exchange demineralizers and membrane separation arrays (such as reverse osmosis) are capable of complete deionization of boiler makeup.
Mar 26, 2018 · Sodium (Na +) Sulfates When steam is produced inside the boiler, the water particles collect and condense, then are recycled and used as part of the boiler feed water. Since many higher-pressure boilers require a higher quality of water with less contaminants than some lower-pressure boilers, demineralization by ion exchange or membrane
Mar 30, 2018 · (Note: A concept known as sodium balancing is important for boiler water chemistry control, particularly for units with AVT-only programs. A discussion of sodium balancing is
In this ion exchange process, harmful scale-producing calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged for sodium ions. The resultant water has a total dissolved solids concentration equal to the previous combined total of sodium, magnesium, and calcium concentrations. If the boiler water exceeds the recommended limits, potential problems can occur
May 03, 2018 · Boiler Water Treatment is necessary to Producing quality steam on demand depends on properly managed water treatment to control steam purity, deposits and corrosion. There are two main types of boiler feed water treatment Internal boiler Water Treatment method and external boiler water treatment. A boiler is the sump of the boiler system. It ultimately
water, and foods. Most of the world has significant deposits of sodium-containing minerals. Sodium ion is ubiquitous in water because of the high solubility of many sodium salts. Groundwater typically contains higher concentrations of minerals and salts than do surface waters.
Sep 26, 2016 · For industrial companies using a boiler for its facility, some type of boiler feed water treatment system is usually necessary to ensure an efficient process and quality steam generation. The most appropriate boiler feed water treatment system will help the facility avoid costly plant downtime, expensive maintenance fees, and boiler failure as a result of scaling, corrosion, and fouling of the